Prolog in ai notes

AI has brought another level of smart technology to different industries and the prospects of its potential still grows with the expectation that it would reach the human intelligence.

This is because developers are willing to explore, experiment and implement its capabilities to satisfy more of the human and organization necessities. After all, necessity is the mother of invention. Just like in the development of most software applicationsa developer has a variety of languages to use in writing AI.

However, there is no perfect programming language to point as the best programming language used in artificial intelligence. The development process depends on the desired functionality of the AI application being developed. AI has so far achieved biometric intelligence, autopilots for self-driving cars and other applications that required different artificial intelligence coding language for their development projects.

At Existekwe love AI programming, check out our AI and neural network based handwriting character recognition application case study. Debates about best language for AI programming languages never stop.

Because of that, we decided to compare languages we commonly use for artificial intelligence projects to outline the pros and cons of each one. It is up to a developer to choose which of the AI languages will gratify the desired functionality and features of the application requirements. As a result, this article seeks to provide you with closure on the appropriate artificial intelligence programming language.

It is also likable from its features such as Interactive, interpreted, modular, dynamic, portable and high level which make it more unique than Java. Also, Python is a Multi-paradigm programming supporting object-oriented, procedural and functional styles of programming. Python supports neural networks and development of NLP solutions thanks to its simple function library and more so ideal structure. Python Official Website. It provides faster execution and has less response time which is applied in search engines and development of computer games.

It is an AI programming language that can run on any platform that supports it without the need for recompilation. Java is one of the most commonly used and not just in AI development. Java is not only appropriate for NLP and search algorithms but also for neural networks. Java Official Website. LISP is another language used for artificial intelligence development. It is a family of computer programming language and is the second oldest programming language after Fortran.

LISP has developed over time to become strong and dynamic language in coding. For instance, LISP has a unique macro system which facilitates exploration and implementation of different levels of Intellectual Intelligence. LISP, unlike most AI programming languages, is more efficient in solving specific as it adapts to the needs of the solutions a developer is writing. It is highly suitable in inductive logic projects and machine learning. Lisp Official Website.

Prolog is also one of the oldest programming languages thus also suitable for the development of programming AI.

prolog in ai notes

Like Lisp, it is also a primary computer language for artificial intelligence. It has mechanisms that facilitate flexible frameworks developers enjoy working with.Print them off from here if you wish to annotate them during lectures. Course notes are available for download here. The course notes contain an introduction to Prolog as well as all practical exercises and revision exercises. Download the specification and template file here. Practical code is available here along with updated instructions.

Dedicated to catch-up and 2nd assignment. It is a high-level programming language which enables the user to build programs by stating what they want the program to do rather than how it should do it.

Due to Prolog's grounding in first-order predicate logic it is intended to be more analogous with human deductive reasoning than other programming languages. AIPP is a Masters level course intended to provide students with all the technical skills needed to implement Artificial Intelligence techniques in compact and efficient Prolog programs.

By the end of the module students will be able to construct Prolog programs of all sizes and complexity that implement a range of AI techniques.

The students will be able to utilise the skills learnt during this course in many areas: Natural Language Processing and Generation, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Database Search, Problem Solving, Planning, Cognitive Modelling, Logic and Theorem Proving, as well as providing computational skills that can be utilised in their MSc project.

Lecturer Tim Smith e-mail: tim. Tel: x Office hours 9ampm every Tuesday. Module Description A brief description of the course is available here.

prolog in ai notes

The course notes are available here. Course notes contain all organisational details and weekly practical assignments. Please pick these up as soon as they become available. If you are printing the coursenotes please print two pages per side and duplex as the notes are pages long!

Lectures All lectures start at and end at on Mondays and Thursdays. Use a similar layout when printing from Powerpoint as well. This will help save paper.

Both assignments are to be submitted using the submit command on DICE. You should put all of your work into one prolog file commenting out any written sections and submit the file before the deadline. Details of how to use the submit command will be provided at the end of each assignment. Both assignments require you to develop complete Prolog programs. You may develop these programs at home on a PC or Mac but you must test that they run under the DICE version of sicstus before submission.

Practical exercises are published in the course notes. There are two scheduled practical times, Wednesday pm and Friday pm. Students should choose the most practical time, register for that session during the first couple of lectures, and then attend that session for the rest of term.

Each practical exercise contains sections that need to be shown to a lab demonstrator and signed off on.What is Prolog? Prolog stands for Programming in logic.

prolog in ai notes

It is used in artificial intelligence programming. Prolog is a declarative programming language. For example: While implementing the solution for a given problem, instead of specifying the ways to achieve a certain goal in a specific situation, user needs to specify about the situation rules and facts and the goal query. After these stages, Prolog interpreter derives the solution.

Prolog is useful in AI, NLP, databases but useless in other areas such as graphics or numerical algorithms. Prolog facts A fact is something that seems to be true. For example: It's raining. In Prolog, facts are used to form the statements.

Facts consist of a specific item or relation between two or more items. How to convert English to prolog facts using facts and rules?

Prolog | An Introduction

It is very simple to convert English sentence into Prolog facts. Some examples are explained in the following table. In this statement, variable like 'Food' has a first letter in capital, because its value came from previous fact. Related Topics Artificial Intelligence.Prolog is a logic programming language. It has important role in artificial intelligence. Unlike many other programming languages, Prolog is intended primarily as a declarative programming language. In prolog, logic is expressed as relations called as Facts and Rules.

Core heart of prolog lies at the logic being applied. Formulation or Computation is carried out by running a query over these relations.

COMP9414: Artificial Intelligence

In prolog, We declare some facts. These facts constitute the Knowledge Base of the system. We can query against the Knowledge Base. We get output as affirmative if our query is already in the knowledge Base or it is implied by Knowledge Base, otherwise we get output as negative. So, Knowledge Base can be considered similar to database, against which we can query. Prolog facts are expressed in definite pattern.

Facts contain entities and their relation. Entities are written within the parenthesis separated by comma. Their relation is expressed at the start and outside the parenthesis.

So, a typical prolog fact goes as follows :. Key Features : 1. Unification : The basic idea is, can the given terms be made to represent the same structure. Backtracking : When a task fails, prolog traces backwards and tries to satisfy previous task.

Artificial Intelligence - Prolog

Recursion : Recursion is the basis for any search in program. Running queries : A typical prolog query can be asked as :. Advantages : 1. Easy to build database. Pattern matching is easy. Search is recursion based. It has built in list handling. Makes it easier to play with any algorithm involving lists. Disadvantages : 1.

prolog in ai notes

Sometimes input and output is not easy. Prolog is highly used in artificial intelligence AI. Prolog is also used for pattern matching over natural language parse trees. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. Writing code in comment? Please use ide. How to be a Good Programmer in College? What Should I Do? How to Think Like a Programmer? Introduction : Prolog is a logic programming language.A prolog program consists of a set of facts and a set of rules.

There are no type declarations, initialisations or any other stuff like that. Just some facts and rules. Some prolog facts are:. All arguments beginning with a capital letter such as X and Y are variables. Note that variables are NOT treated in the same manner as in conventional programming languages - for example, they don't have to have values.

Any constant should NOT begin with a capital letter else it will be treated as a variable. So, given the fact capital Scotland, Edinburgh both arguments would be treated as unbound variables. For example, you could ask:. Questions can have variables in them, which may get instantiated ie, get bound to particular values when prolog tries to answer the question. So we might have:. Note that the variables Course and Someone can both take values of any type.

We can find out who lectures what by asking:. Prolog systematically goes through all its facts and rules and tries to find all the ways it can associate variables with particular values so that the initial query is satisfied. We'll discuss in the next lecture how it does this. However, as an example of how rules are used, suppose we ask the question:. Animal B can be satisfied by binding B to lion.In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Introduction to Prolog-Programming 2.

Features of Prolog-Programming 3. Disadvantages 4. Prolog was written by a team headed by Alain Colmerauer of Marsielles, France, duringand a very fast version was implemented on the DEC computer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, by David Warren and his group in Prolog has been used to write large AI applications programs at the University of Edinburgh, England, the New University of Lisbon, Portugal, and by Hungarian researchers for developing industrial applications.

PROLOG has only recently reached a place of importance in the tool kit of the artificial intelligence community. Nonetheless, as a practical implementation of logic as a programming language, it has made many interesting contributions to AI problem solving. These include its declarative semantics, a means of directly expressing problem relationships in AI, as well as, with built-in resolution, a primary rule inference. Instead of many different rules of limited applicability such as modus ponens, merging, chaining and so forth theorem provoking through resolution makes prolog as a strong tool.

Instead of having to try different rules of inference and hoping one succeed resolution in Prolog greatly reduces the search space. Prolog is based on first-order predicate logic. However, it has a number of extensions to make it easier for programming applications. Facts and relationships about the system under investigation are encoded by making this information part of the knowledge base of the system.

The user can then query the system for information either explicitly stated in the knowledge base or which is implied from this information. In this sense Prolog resembles a database query system.

In predicate calculus, objects are represented by terms which may have one of the following forms:. A constant symbol representing a concept or single individual. A constant symbol is equivalent to a predicate logic atom, and examples include Greek, Chopra, Kurukshetra etc. A variable symbol which may represent different individuals at different times. Variables must be introduced along with quantifiers.

Examples of Prolog variables are X, Woman and Roman note upper case convention for variables. A compound term which resembles the symbolic-expression in LISP. A compound term consists of a function symbol in conjunction with an ordered set of terms as its arguments.

The function symbol represents how the function depends on the arguments.

COMP9414/9814 Artificial Intelligence

A very useful, recursively defined predicate is member A, L? Once this recursive function has been defined, we may ask: member cat, [the, cat, sat, rat, bet, hat]?

We may note that no where we have stated explicitly that Socrates is mortal, but that it is implicit from the rule relating humans and mortality and the fact about Socrates. This inference takes only three lines of Prolog but several pages of code in conventional procedural languages. Prolog in general does not support graphics. An exception is the recently released Turbo Prolog.

The order in which rules are entered greatly effects the efficiency of Prolog. Prolog and LISP may be used together. A hybrid system which mixes and merges the two languages may provide the optimum configuration.What is Prolog? Note that historical information in these lectures is not examinable. Prolog is a declarative programming language unlike most common programming languages.

In a declarative language the programmer specifies a goal to be achieved the Prolog system works out how to achieve it relational databases owe something to Prolog. Some applications of Prolog are: intelligent data base retrieval natural language understanding expert systems specification language machine learning robot planning automated reasoning problem solving. When we say, "John owns the book", we are declaring the ownership relationship between two objects: John and the book. Relationships can also rules such as: Two people are sisters if they are both female and they have the same parents.

A rule allows us to find out about a relationship even if the relationship isn't explicitly stated as a fact. X is a parent if there is a Y such that Y is a child of X.

A period ". They also can begin with digits likeand can be strings of characters enclosed in quotes as in reads fred, "War and Peace". Together, these facts form Prolog's database.

Queries Once we have a database of facts and, soon, rules we can ask questions about the stored information. Suppose we want to know if Turing lectures in course In example dialogues with Prolog, the text in green italics is what the user types. See the article on negation in the Prolog dictionary to find out why No. Prolog is not being intelligent about this - it would not see a difference between this query and lectures fred, To ask Prolog to find the course that Turing teaches, enter this:?

To ask which course s Prof. Codd teaches, we may ask,? If Prolog can tell that there are no more solutions, it just gives you the?


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